Câu đảo ngữ thường được dùng để nhấn mạnh tính đặc biệt của một sự kiện nào đó và thường được mở đầu bằng một trạng từ (phó từ) nhất định. Trạng từ này không đứng ở vị trí bình thường của nó mà đảo lên đứng ở đầu câu nhằm nhấn mạnh vào hành động của chủ ngữ.
CÁC LOẠI CÂU ĐẢO NGỮ THƯỜNG GẶP
1. Câu đảo ngữ trạng từ chỉ tần suất (thường là các trạng từ mang nghĩa phủ định)
Never/Rarely/Seldom/Hardly ever /Little + Auxilary+ S + V
I never drink milk tea for fear that I will get fat
=> Never do I drink milk tea for fear that I will get fat.
– I knew little about chemistry
=> Little did I know about chemistry.
– She rarely spends time on playing video games
=> Rarely does she spend time on playing video games.
2. Câu đảo ngữ với No hoặc Not any
No + N + Auxiliary + S + Verb (inf)
Not any + N + Auxiliary + S + Verb (inf)
I will not lend you any more money since you haven’t pay me back last time
=> No more money will I lend you since you haven’t pay me back last time.
hoặc Not any money will I lend you since you haven’t pay me back last time.
3. Câu đảo ngữ với Only
Only once/ Only later/ Only in this way/ Only then + Auxiliary + S + V
- Only after + N
- Only by V_ing/ N
- Only when + clause
- Only with + N
- Only if+ clause
- Only in adv of time/ place
-Only once did I meet Obama.
– Only in this way can the project be done quickly.
– Only when the show ended could she go to the bathroom.
– Only with courage could we finish our challenge.
– Only in Vietnam did they see such beautiful landscapes.
– Only if she was not sick, could she attend the concert with her friends.
4. Câu đảo ngữ với So và Such
So + Adj/ Adv+ Auxilary+ S+ N+ that+ clause.
Such +a/an+ Adj + N + that + clause.
The watch was so costly that I could not afford it
=> So costly was the watch that I could not afford it.
– It was such a beautiful day that we could not just stay inside the house
=> Such a beautiful day it was that we could not just stay inside the house.
5. Câu đảo ngữ với Not until
Not until/till + Clause + Auxilary + S + V
It was not until my teacher graded my paper poorly that I realized that there was a mistake
=> Not until did my teacher grade my paper poorly that I realized that there was a mistake.
It was not I became a mother that I knew how my mother loved me.
=> Not until did I become a mother that I knew how my mother loved me.
6. Câu đảo ngữ với trạng từ
Adv+ Auxilary+ S+V
– She cooked the meal perfectly
=> Perfectly did she cook the meal.
– The room was decorated tastefully
=> Tastefully was the room decorated.
7. Câu đảo ngữ Not only – but also
Not only + Auxiliary + S + V, but +S+ also+V (chỉ đảo ngữ ở mệnh đề not only)
– Not only does he speak English very well, but he also can speak Chinese fluently.
– Not only was the food amazing, but the service was also very satisfying.
8. Câu đảo ngữ trong câu điều kiện loại 1,2,3
Với câu điều kiện loại 1
Should + clause, S + will/should/may + V
– If it rains tomorrow, we will cancel the camping trip
=> Should it rain tomorrow, we will cancel the trip.
Với câu điều kiện loại 2
Were + S+ to + V, S+ would/could/might + V
Were + S…, S+ would/could/might + V
– If I had money, I would buy that mansion
=> Were I to have money, I would buy that mansion.
Với câu điều kiện loại 3
Had + S+ V3, S+ would/should/might have + V3
– If she had not eaten that dish, she would not have been sick
=> Had she not eaten that dish, she would not have been sick.
Một số cấu trúc khác
No sooner + auxiliary + S + V + than + S + V: Vừa mới … thì …, Ngay sau khi … thì …
- No sooner had I eaten shrimp than I started feeling sick. (Ngay sau khi tôi ăn tôm tôi bắt đầu thấy không khỏe.)
- No sooner had Luna finished her homework than Mary called her. (Ngay sau khi Luna hoàn thành bài tập về nhà thì Mary đã gọi điện cho cô ấy.)
Hardly/ Scarcely had+ S+V3+ when + S +V2
Ví dụ: No sooner had he come than she left.
=> Hardly had he come when she left.
Bài tập vận dụng
Chuyển sang dạng đảo ngữ
1. He is so gentle that he never scolds anyone.
=> So _______________________________
2. He hardly bought a new bike when he had an accident.
(1) => Hardly ___________________________
(2) => No sooner _________________________
3. The thief ran away.
=> Away ______________________________
4. I could drive a car only when I reached 30.
=> Only when __________________________
5. If he goes to school, he will have money.
=> Should _____________________________
6. The man not only beat the child but also took all her money.
=> Not only ____________________________
7. She will never accept his proposal.
=> At no time ___________________________
8. Mr. Bean rarely showed his intelligence.
=> Rarely _____________________________
9. I phone him as soon as I went home.
(1) => No sooner _________________________
(2) => Scarcely __________________________
10. If you had followed the advice, you would have succeeded.
=> Had ______________________________Show answers
1. So gentle is he that he never scolds anyone.
2. Hardly had he bought a new bike when he had an accident.
No sooner had he bought a new bike than he had an accident.
3. Away ran the thief
4. Only when I reached 30 could I drive a car.
5. Should he go to school, he will have money.
6. Not only did the man beat the child, but he also took all her money.
7. At no time will she accept his proposal.
8. Rarely did Mr. Bean show his intelligence.
9. No sooner had I gone home than I phoned him.
Scarcely had I gone home when I phoned him.
10. Had you followed the advice, you would have succeeded
Đảo ngữ với NEVER
1. She had never been so happy before.
=> Never before_____________
2. I have never heard such nonsense!
3. I have never seen such a mess in my life.
=> Never in my life___________
4. Our profits have never been higher than they are this year.
5. I’ve never come across such a horrifying film.
=> Never______________Show answers
1. Never before had she been so happy.
2. Never have I heard such nonsense
3. Never in my life have I seen such a mess in my life
4. Never have our profits been higher than they are this year
5. Never have I come across such a horrifying film.
Đảo ngữ với RARELY, SELDOM, LITTLE
1. One rarely finds good service these days.
3. Public borrowing has seldom been so high.
4. They had seldom participated in such a fascinating ceremony.
5. They little suspected that the musical was going to be a runaway success.
6. The embassy staff little realized that Ted was a secret agent
=> Little__________________Show answers
1. Rarely does one find good service these days
2. Rarely has she traveled more than fifty miles from her village
3. Seldom public borrowing has been so high
4. Seldom had they participated in such a fascinating ceremony.
5. Little did they suspect that the musical was going to be a runaway success.
6. Little did the embassy staff realize that Ted was a secret agent
Đảo ngữ với NOT.
1. He is my friend as well as yours.
=> Not only_____________
2. He not only spent all his money but also borrowed some from me.
=> Not only_______________
3. Harry not only broke his leg but also injured his shoulder.
=> Not only_______________
4. He is both intelligent and handsome.
=> Not only______________
5. He translated not only fast but also correctly.
=> Not_________________Show answers
1. Not only is he my friend but also yours
2. Not only did he spend all his money but also borrowed some from me
3. Not only did Harry break his leg but also injured his shoulder
4. Not only is he intelligent but also handsome
5. Not did he translate fast but also correctly.
Đảo ngữ với ONLY.
1.He only thought about having a holiday abroad after he retired.
2. I didn’t realize who he was until later.
=> Only _________________________
3. The door could not be opened without using force.
=> Only __________________________
4. I won’t agree until Tom’s apologized.
=> Only ___________________________
5.The only way you can become a good athlete is by training hard every day.
=> Only _________________________________
1. Only after he retired did he think about having a holiday abroad
2. Only later did I realize who he was.
3. Only using force could the door be opened.
4.Only until Tom’s apologized will I agree.
5. Only by training hard every day can you become a good athlete.
Đảo ngữ với SHOULD
1. If the Government are forced into another election, it will be the favorite to win.
2. If you want to make an appointment to see Dr Simons, she is free after 9. A.M
3. If you have further problems with your printer, contact your dealer for advice.
4. If you decide to accept the post, you will be expected to start work on 1st April.
5. If we hear any further news, we will be in touch immediately.
=> Should________________________________Show answers
1. Should the Government be forced into another election, it will be the favorite to win.
2. Should you want to make an appointment to see Dr Simons, she is free after 9. A.M
3. Should you have further problems with your printer, contact your dealer for advice.
4. Should you decide to accept the post, you will be expected to start work on 1st April.
5. Should we hear any further news, we will be in touch immediately.
Đảo ngữ với WERE, HAD.
1. If the salary were high, the job would be worth doing.
=> Were ______________________________.
2. I didn’t see the signal, so I didn’t stop.
3. If I were rich, I could afford to buy an expensive car.
4. If I were you, I would tell him the truth.
=> Were _______________________________.Show answers
1. Were the salary high, the job would be worth doing.
2. Had I seen the signal I would have stopped.
3. Were I rich, I could afford to buy an expensive car.
4. Were I you, I would tell him the truth.
Đảo ngữ với SO, SUCH.
1. The weather is so beautiful that we decided to go to the beach.
2. He is so strong that he can lift the box.
3. He is such a lazy boy that no one likes him.
4. He ate so much food that he became ill.
5. It is such hot coffee that I can’t drink it.
=> Such___________________________________.Show answers
1. So beautiful is the weather that we decided to go to the beach.
2. So strong is he that he can lift the box.
3. Such a lazy boy is he that no one likes him.
4. So much food did he eat that he became ill.
5. Such hot coffee is it that I can’t drink it.
Đảo ngữ với câu điều kiện.
1. If you need some more money, take an extra 200.
2. If I were your father, I would insist you practice harder.
3. If my girlfriend calls, please let me know right away.
4. If I had thought of the right words, I would have told them what I was thinking!
5. If I were a rich kid, I would not have to worry about anything.
6. If they run out of tickets, we will have to go to another theater.
7. If you change your mind, let us know.
8. If you had known my mom, you would have thought she was crazy too
9. If you had heard her singing, you would have laughed too.
10. If I were a celebrity, I could buy any bag I want.
1. Should you need some more money, take an extra 200.
2. Were I your father, I would insist you practice harder.
3. Should my girlfriend call, please let me know right away.
4. Had I thought of the right words, I would have told them what I was thinking!
5. Were I a rich kid, I would not have to worry about spending anything.
6. Should they run out of tickets, we will have to go to another theater.
7. Should you change your mind, let us know.
8. Had you known my mom, you would have thought he was crazy too.
9. Had you heard her singing, you would have laughed too.
10. Were I a celebrity, I could get buy any bag I want.